Affixes (Prefixes and Suffixes)

Prefix Meaning Example(s) In isolation
bo- related by marriage patro - father
bopatro - father in-law
not used
dis- in several directions, spread doni - to give
disdoni - to distribute
dise - spread about; here and there
ek- (immediately) begin iri - to go
ekiri - start out; go now
Ek! - Let's go! Away we go!
eks- former, ex- edzo - husband
eksedzo - ex-husband
eksa - former
not often used
fi- bad (referring to character or quality) domo - house
fidomo - house of shame
fia - nasty
ge- both genders together patro - father
patrino - mother
gepatroj - parents
gea - co-ed; of both genders
mal- opposite of the root granda - big; large
malgranda - small
malo - opposite
mis- in error, incorrect legi - to read
mislegi - to misread
misa - incorrect; amiss
pra- ancient, or (for descendants) future tempo - time
pratempo - prehistoric time
praa - ancient; primeval
re- again, repeat, reverse direction legi - to read
relegi - to reread
ree - again; once more

Suffix Meaning Example(s) In isolation
-aĉ- bad (in principle referring to quality) domo - house
domo - hovel
aĉa - awful; rotten; terrible
-ad- continuous or repeated action; habitual occupation kanti - to sing
kantado - singing (as a noun)
adi - to continue; to keep on
-aĵ- something concrete, specific bovo - cow
bovo - beef
nova - new
novo - news
aĵo - thing
-an- member, follower Kristo - Christ
Kristano - Christian
ano - member
-ar- a collection of instances of the root arbo - tree
arbaro - forest
aro - collection; group; set
-ĉj- familiar form of male names, usually shortened to 2-5 letters patro - father
paĉjo - dad
not used
-ebl- can be done manĝi - to eat
manĝebla - edible
eble - maybe; possibly
-ec- quality as an abstract idea bela - beautiful
beleco - beauty
eco - quality; property
-eg- very large, very strong granda - big; large
grandega - huge
ega - considerable; major; great
-ej- place vendi - to sell
vendejo - store; shop
ejo - place
-em- inclination or tendency dormi - to sleep
dormema - sleepy
emo - tendency; desire; propensity
-end- must be done skribi - to write
skribenda - must be written
endi - to be compulsory
-er- fragment, smallest piece of something pano - bread
panero - crumb
ero - fragment; particle; element
-estr- person who guides, rules, presides lernejo - school
lernejestro - school principal
estro - boss
-et- very small, weak (opposite of -eg-), diminishes the root varma - warm
varmeta - luke warm
eta - little; tiny
-id- offspring kato - cat
katido - kitten
ido - offspring
-ig- cause something to be, makes verbs transitive boli - to be boiling
boligi - to cause to boil
igi - to cause
-iĝ- to become, makes verbs intransitive geedzo - spouse
geedzi - to become married
iĝi - to become
-il- instrument, tool tranĉi - to cut (with a knife)
tranĉilo - knife
ilo - tool
-in- female gender patro - father
patrino - mother
ino - female
-ind- good to do, worthy of legi - to read
leginda - worth reading
indo - worth
-ing- a holder into which something is inserted glavo - sword
glavingo - scabbard (sword holder)
ingo - holder; socket
-ism- way of thought, belief system Kristano - Christian
Kristanismo - Christianity
ismo - doctrine
-ist- professional, occupation, hobby, or way of thinking instrui - to teach; to instruct
instruisto - teacher; instructor
isto - professional
-nj- familiar form of female names, usually shortened to 2-5 letters patrino - mother
panjo - mom
not used
-obl- multiplication; times du - two
duoblo - double
oble - times (adverb)
-on- fraction du - two
duono - half
ono - fraction
-op- group of that size du - two
duope - by twos
opa - collective; joint
-uj- container or country (for some countries) mono - money
monujo - wallet; purse
Franco - French person
Francujo - France
ujo - container
-ul- person juna - young
junulo - a youth; a young person
ulo - guy; person; chap
-um- indefinite relation komuna - common
komunumo - community
umo - whatchamacallit; thingamajig


vic-   step-relative  vicfrato - stepbrother
ĉef-   chief/head     ĉefurbo - capital city
vir-   male           virbovo - bull
for-   away           Foriru! - Go away!
Back to Main Page